Vitamin E decreased pneumonia risk by 69% among participants who had the least exposure to smoking and exercised during leisure time. In contrast, vitamin E increased pneumonia risk by 79% among those who had the highest exposure to smoking and did not exercise! In laboratory studies, vitamin E has influenced the immune system. In several animal studies vitamin E protected against viral and bacterial infections. So studying humans seems reasonable...
Very interesting outcome swing from protective to non-protective depending on smoking status. Message here? Don't Smoke...take vitamin E and exercise!
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